(12) In a few NENA languages the newest preterite off Group II verbs features a beneficial vocalism (m)CoCiC- or (m)CuCiC- without any predecessor in the previous dialects. Noldeke (1868, 213) advised the modern mode is actually related to the fresh new Hebrew pual. Examples: Aradhin mbusille ‘he cooked’ (Krotkoff 1982, 136), Tkhuma mso:re:li ‘I began’, Jilu +poltele ‘he took it out’ (Fox 1992, 54). Forms which have o transgenderdate bezplatnÃ¡ aplikace otherwise u is absent outside NENA and have in lots of of NENA languages: Hertevin, Sanandaj Christian, and you may Halabja: Halabja bqirraxun ‘you (pl.) asked’, Hertevin bqerre ‘he asked’ (Jastrow 1988, 206).
(13) All round establish are marked because of the good prefix throughout NENA but Hertevin and also in Mandaic plus Turoyo. New prefix takes certainly three models: (a) k- on the the verbs (complex in order to c- from inside the Urmi, expanded in order to ko- prior to consonants into the Turoyo, as well as in Zakho to-be g- ahead of a spoken phoneme); (b) k- however, merely toward a restricted group of verbs (with voicing assimilation and sometimes almost every other transform as well); or (c) i- to your most of the verbs.
Examples: (a) Zakho k-xaze ‘he sees’, g-emir ‘he says’ (Meehan and Alon 1979, 182), Urmi csader ‘he sends’ (Hetzron 1969, 115), Turoyo kohoze ‘he sees’, Tisqopa ksaqIl ‘he takes’ (Rubba, private communication); (b) Halabja k-ImrIx-wa ‘we do say’, but doqIx-wa-le ‘we carry out observe it’, Azerbaijan k-xil ‘he eats, commonly eat’, however, sate ‘he drinks, tend to, could possibly get drink’ (Garbell 1965, 66, 67); (c) Aradhin we-zare:la ‘he tills it’ (Krotkoff 1982, 70), Jilu i-napli baro ‘they pursue her’ (Fox 1992, 55).
The newest k- prefix appears to be an endurance of your prefix qa- out-of BT, like in this new ubiquitous qatane ‘he teaches’. elizabeth ‘stands’. In certain eastern dialects brand new shipment out of k- has been limited to a small group of verbs (Garbell 1965, 65). In other people, it’s disappeared and you will become replaced by the another prefix i-, and this most likely started once the a lesser kind of we[Theta] ‘there is’.
Examples: Halabja geznawa ta knista ‘I visits the newest synagogue’, Aradhin tla t-sapri ‘to wait’, Jilu zIlli l-yawa zuze tla weil kIcca ‘I decided to go to give currency to help you a good girl’, Tisqopa [Theta]e:li ta di-mbaslan ‘I (fem
(14) The new verb ‘give’ is actually yehav inside BT, and you may yav into the Syriac. It’s been remade in all NENA languages from incorporation of your own following l- ‘to’. The brand new imperative, which was hav in the Syriac and BT, was hal (Noldeke 1868, 256) in every NENA whereby We have information, but not for the Turoyo otherwise Mandaic.
(15) Throughout NENA, new one vital away from qyama ‘get up’ has lost its final m: Aradhin qu (Krotkoff 1982, 145), Sanandaj Religious qu (Panoussi, 110). The brand new plural, although not, holds new m.
(16) In most NENA, the new crucial of (i)zala ‘go’ are irregular: Aradhin si (Krotkoff 1982, 147), Sanandaj Christian state (Panoussi 119), Jilu se, Jewish Azerbaijani quand (Garbell 1965, 285).
(17) Across the NENA, various terms and conditions are used once the legs to possess reflexive pronouns eg ‘myself’. He or she is: ruh- into the Hertevin plus in Turoyo, nos- on the three easternmost Jewish languages, and gyan- about remaining languages: Hertevin ruhan ‘ourselves’ (Jastrow 1988, 197), Zakho qtala gyane ‘beating himself’ (Meehan and you can Alon 1982, 181), Halabja nosan ‘ourselves’.
This qa- was itself a great contraction of qa?
(18) An alternative preposition meaning ‘to’ or ‘for’ that takes the proper execution ta, tla, or tla was prevalent, in the event maybe not common, for the NENA, but not found in Mandaic or Turoyo. ) came to cook’ (Rubba, private communications), Zakho cuxa la psIxle darga story ‘no one to exposed the doorway to him’ (Meehan and you will Alon 1979, 182).